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In the pilot study, 16 healthy normoweight volunteers (median 27 years; 9 males) received either rifaximin (600 mg/day) or a placebo for 7 days. The brain activity of participants was measured using magnetoencephalography (MEG) during a rest period and during a social stressor (Cyberball game) (review article) that induced feelings of exclusion, both before and after the antibiotic intervention. To sum up, rifamixin may be beneficial in relieving stress, both in resting conditions and in stressful situations. Contrary to common belief, these preliminary results suggest that antibiotics could exhibit stress-reducing effects similar to the reported positive effects of probiotics on both gut and brain functions.