From the article:
“We found that monkeys who exercised regularly at an intensity that would improve fitness in middle-aged people learned to do tests of cognitive function faster and had greater blood volume in the brain’s motor cortex than their sedentary counterparts,” Dr. Cameron said. “This suggests people who exercise are getting similar benefits.” For the study, the researchers trained adult female cynomolgus monkeys to run on a human-sized treadmill at 80 percent of their individual maximal aerobic capacity for one hour each day, five days per week, for five months.
“Monkeys that exercised learned to remove the well covers twice as quickly as control animals,” Dr. Cameron said. “Also, they were more engaged in the tasks and made more attempts to get the rewards, but they also made more mistakes.
When the researchers examined tissue samples from the brain’s motor cortex, they found that mature monkeys that ran had greater vascular volume than middle-aged runners or sedentary animals. But those blood flow changes reversed in monkeys that were sedentary after exercising for five months.