Corticosterone is a stress hormone known to modulate social aggression. The consumption of a high sucrose solution also changed the activation levels of many genes, including inflammatory genes, in brain regions associated with aggression. This study shows a clear cause and effect in animals; however, the association between aggressive behavior and sugar consumption in humans remains controversial. Studies have found associations between refined sugar intake and aggression/hyperactivity while others have not. Future clinical studies may help shed some light.