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Bacteria transplanted from healthy humans into mice did not have the same effect. Three weeks after the fecal transplant, mice given the gut bacteria from IBS patients also had higher gut permeability. Distinct bacterial species and metabolites derived from humans correlated with the anxiety behavior in mice. It has previously been shown that inflammatory molecules produced as a consequence of gut permeability can cross the blood-brain barrier and lead to anxiety and depression. Additionally, the vagal nerve connecting the gut to the brain may also be at play here.