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    There’s a history of science being used to say chemicals are safe and then discovering much later that they never were. I recommend everybody exercise the precautionary principle when it comes to chemicals and to stay away from them if you don’t need them.

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      Aldehydes: Across brands, EC released 1/50th of the level of formaldehyde released by cigarettes. The highest level detected was six times lower than the level in cigarette smoke [138]

      Study on vape-mice lungs: The mice model has little relevance for estimating human risk and it does not raise any new safety concerns.

      Second-hand vape: the only study concerning this, the authors initially expressed concern, then asked the media to retract that statement.

      Summary of findings Two recent worldwide media headlines asserted that EC use is dangerous. These were based on misinterpreted research findings. A high level of formaldehyde was found when e-liquid was over-heated to levels unpalatable to EC users, but there is no indication that EC users are exposed to dangerous levels of aldehydes; stressed mice poisoned with very high levels of nicotine twice daily for two weeks were more likely to lose weight and die when exposed to bacteria and viruses, but this has no relevance for human EC users. The ongoing negative media campaigns are a plausible explanation for the change in the perception of EC safety (see Chapter 8). None of the studies reviewed above alter the conclusion of Professor Britton’s 2014 review for PHE. While vaping may not be 100% safe, most of the chemicals causing smoking-related disease are absent and the chemicals that are present pose limited danger. It had previously been estimated that EC are around 95% safer than smoking [10, 146]. This appears to remain a reasonable estimate.