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“Wheat is a major diet from many years; apart from its nutritious value, the wheat protein gliadin is responsible for many inflammatory diseases like celiac disease (CD), and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS).”

“Cells were cultured and exposed to 160 μg/ml of gliadin, 100 μM H2O2, and 10 μM curcumin (3 h pretreatment) followed by the assessment of inflammation.

“The results show that gliadin increases the advanced oxidation protein products level and the activity of myeloperoxidase and NADPH oxidase expression. It enhances inflammation by increasing expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, altered expression of anti-inflammatory, and regulatory cytokines. It exacerbates the cellular damage by increasing MMP-2 and 9 and decreasing integrin α and β expression. Gliadin promotes disease pathogenesis by inducing the inflammation and cellular damage which further alter the cellular homeostasis. The pretreatment of curcumin counteracts the adverse effect of gliadin and protect the cells via diminishing the inflammation and help the cell to regain the cellular morphology suggesting phytochemical-based remedial interventions against wheat allergies.”

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