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In one of the first studies to ‘read’ the genetic activity inside individual brain cells, University of Wisconsin-Madison neuroscientist Xinyu Zhao has identified the genetic machinery that causes maturation in a young nerve cell. The cells under study came from the hippocampus, a memory-related structure that is the only place in a mammal’s brain where new neurons can form throughout life. Since newly formed neurons were discovered in the hippocampus more than 20 years ago, scientists have identified the many roles they play in learning and memory. However, mystery continues to surround the genetic controls that regulate the formation of the delicate structures and the chemicals necessary for neural communication, Zhao says.