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From the article:

“Menopause-related testosterone predominance appears to be implicated as a key hormonal change that is associated with the incidence of metabolic syndrome,” said lead investigator Imke Janssen, PhD, assistant professor, Department of Preventive Medicine at Rush University Medical Center.

It was previously thought that estrogen exerted a direct positive effect on cardiovascular disease risk in women, a benefit that was lost as women transitioned from a premenopausal to a postmenopausal state and experienced a loss of estrogen.

“Our study data shows that the change in estrogen level is, at best, a weak and nonsignificant predictor of metabolic syndrome risk,” said Janssen. “A more likely story is that the progressive testosterone predominance exerts a direct negative effect on cardiovascular risk.”

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