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Full Title: Betaine reduces β-amyloid-induced paralysis through activation of cystathionine-β-synthase in an Alzheimer model of Caenorhabditis elegans
Betaine at a concentration of 100 μM was able to reduce homocysteine levels in the presence and absence of 1 mM homocysteine. Simultaneously, betaine both reduced normal paralysis rates in the absence of homocysteine and increased paralysis rates triggered by addition of homocysteine. Knockdown of cystathionine-β-synthase using RNA interference both increased homocysteine levels and paralysis. Additionally, it prevented the reducing effects of betaine on homocysteine levels and paralysis.
Our studies show that betaine is able to reduce homocysteine levels and β-amyloid-induced toxicity in a C. elegans model for Alzheimer’s disease. This effect is independent of the remethylation pathway but requires the transsulfuration pathway mediated by cystathionine-β-synthase.