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From the article:
The analysis covered 99 women aged 46-58 and a comparison group of 29 similarly aged men. It confirmed that the post-menopausal and peri-menopausal (starting menopause) women, compared with the pre-menopausal women and the men, had significantly lower GMV – adjusted for age and head size – in brain areas such as the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and temporal lobe regions, which are heavily affected by Alzheimer’s.
By contrast, among the women, having more estrogen exposure as implied by various factors was associated with greater GMV [gray matter volume] in certain brain areas. Longer reproductive span, for example, was significantly linked to more GMV in a cluster of regions near the top of the brain including the superior parietal lobule and precuneus of the left hemisphere. Having had more children was significantly associated with more GMV in inferior and middle frontal gyri, and middle and inferior temporal gyri. Having used hormone replacement therapy was associated with more GMV in superior frontal gyrus and several other brain regions. All these brain regions are known to be affected by aging and Alzheimer’s.