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This trial gave 40 critically ill patients in a surgical ICU, a group vulnerable to sepsis, the probiotic VSL#3 for a week and they showed a reduction in inflammatory biomarkers and improvement on a number of indexes.
Evidence suggests that VSL#3 can reduce intestinal permeability by tightening the junctions between the cells in the outer layer of the intestine that in turns reduces the likelihood of translocation of pathogens from the intestine into the blood.
(In other words, by reducing translaction of pathogens, there may be a reduction of systemic inflammation.)