This is a Jeff Volek study and used hard biomarkers, checking ketones daily.
From the article:
In the study, which appears in the journal Military Medicine, participants on the keto diet lost an average of almost 17 pounds and were able, with support of counselors, to maintain ketosis for 12 weeks. As a group, they lost more than 5 percent of their body fat, almost 44 percent of their belly, or visceral, fat and had a 48 percent improvement in insulin sensitivity – a marker that predicts risk of diabetes.
The ketogenic diets in the study included no caloric restrictions, just guidance about what to eat and what to avoid. Carbs were restricted to about 30 to 50 grams daily, with an emphasis on nuts and non-starchy vegetables.
Keto diet participants had near-daily check-ins during which they reported blood ketone measurements from a self-administered finger-prick test and received feedback, usually through text messages, from the research team. Ketosis was defined as a blood concentration of ketones, chemicals made in the liver, between 0.5 and 5.0 mM (millimolar).