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Conclusions: These results are consistent with the concept that vitamin D maintains extracellular fluid serotonin concentrations in the brain, thereby offering an explanation for how vitamin D could influence the trajectory and development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Given the profile of gene regulation in cultured RN46A-B14 serotonergic neurons, we conclude that 1,25D acts not only to induce serotonin synthesis, but also functions at an indirect, molecular-genomic stage to mimic SSRIs and MAO inhibitors, likely elevating serotonin in the CNS. These data suggest that optimal vitamin D status may contribute to improving behavioral pathophysiologies resulting from dysregulation of serotonergic neurotransmission.