Humans that were given a high dose of urolithin A which is a metabolite formed from compounds in pomegranate induced markers of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis in plasma and skeletal muscle.
Mitophagy is the clearance of damaged mitochondria and is an important mechanism by which exercise helps stave off age-related muscle atrophy. Another important way exercise delays muscle atrophy is through the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis which is the growth of new healthy mitochondria. The fact that urolithin A was able to induce biomarkers of both mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis is quite compelling.
Humans were given a variety of doses of urolithin A but 500-1,000mg/day were the doses that improved mitochondrial health. The trial was 28 days and there were no adverse effects associated with taking a high dose of this compound.