From the abstract:
In acute colitis, the hormone (melatonin) (MLT) led to increased clinical, systemic and intestinal inflammatory parameters. During remission, continued MLT administration delayed recovery, increased TNF, memory effector lymphocytes and diminished spleen regulatory cells. MLT treatment reduced Bacteroidetes and augmented Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla in mice feces. Microbiota depletion resulted in a remarkable reversion of the colitis phenotype after MLT administration, including a counter-regulatory immune response, reduction in TNF and colon macrophages. There was a decrease in Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and, most strikingly, Verrucomicrobia phylum in recovering mice. Finally, these results pointed to a gut-microbiota-dependent effect of MLT in the potentiation of intestinal inflammation.