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In conclusion, recent information shows the importance of the redox regulation for cellular homeostasis.

Excess ROS (oxidative stress) or of reducing equivalents (reductive stress) alter the regulation of cellular signaling pathways, leading to several diseases. There are many sources of RS, and its generation alters different cellular processes, such as mitochondrial function, transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications.

An elevated ingestion of supposedly “healthy” compounds, such as antioxidant vitamins, synthetic antioxidants, polyphenols, or hormones (estrogens), can induce a pro-oxidant state, which generates RS with adverse effects for the organism.

Pérez-Torres, I., Guarner-Lans, V., & Rubio-Ruiz, M. E. (2017). Reductive Stress in Inflammation-Associated Diseases and the Pro-Oxidant Effect of Antioxidant Agents. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18(10), 2098.

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