Estrogen mitigates the association between visceral fat on cognitive decline.
Estradiol, a form of estrogen, is the primary female sex hormone. It participates in menstrual cycle regulation and drives the development of female secondary sex characteristics, such as breasts, a wider pelvis, and gynoid fat – fat that forms around the hips, thighs, and breasts. Evidence suggests that estradiol exerts both cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects. Findings from a 2020 study demonstrate that estradiol mitigates the association between visceral fat on cognitive decline.
Cognitive decline is characterized by altered brain structural networks and accelerated degeneration with aging. Scientists don’t fully understand the biological mechanisms that drive cognitive decline, but evidence indicates that visceral fat – a type of fat that accumulates in the abdominal cavity – may play a role. Visceral fat is metabolically active and is associated with increased markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and decreased levels of anti-inflammatory proteins, such as adiponectin
The cross-sectional study involved 974 cognitively healthy females and males (average age, ~50 years). Using magnetic resonance imaging, the investigators measured the participants' gray matter volume, cerebral cortex area, intracranial blood vessels, and visceral fat. They also measured estradiol concentrations in a subset (390) of the females. All the participants completed neuropsychological testing to assess memory performance.
The investigators found that visceral fat exacerbated the harmful effects of aging on the brain’s structural networks in both females and males. However, estradiol mitigated some of these effects in the females, but not the males. Females between the ages of 35 and 55 years (the period surrounding menopause) who had lower estradiol concentrations were more likely to exhibit greater structural network impairments and worse memory performance.
These findings suggest that estradiol mitigates some of the harmful effects of visceral fat on the brain’s structural networks and cognitive health. Interestingly, the fasting-mimicking diet preferentially depletes visceral fat. Learn more in this clip featuring Dr. Valter Longo.