Joe Rogan Experience #568 - Dr. Rhonda Patrick
Posted on October 27th 2014 (about 5 years)
Dr. Rhonda Patrick makes her third appearance on the Joe Rogan Experience.
A few of the topics and studies mentioned in this episode include...
- 00:12:58 - Lactate can build up in the brain during hypoxic events following trauma, causing cell death. Resource article.
- 00:16:00 - Traumatic brain injury increases risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. Review.
- 00:34:40 - Repeated traumatic brain injury has cumulative neuroinflammatory effects in the brain over years, including amyloid-beta plaque and tau tangle formation. Study.
- 00:44:00 - A variant of the APOE gene increases risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease as much as 15-fold. Study.
- 00:45:30 - During sleep, amyloid-beta is cleared from the brain via the glymphatic system.
- 00:51:51 - Endotoxin from human gut bacteria causes learning and memory deficits and depressive symptoms. Study.
- 00:58:28 - Obese children and adults have delayed response to micronutrient-rich CHORI-bar supplementation.
- 01:03:50 - Liposomal glutathione bypasses cellular transport mechanisms to increase heart, brain, and liver glutathione levels. Study.
- 01:06:50 - Topical application of glutathione reduced inflammation and cell death after brain injury in mice. Study.
- 01:11:42 - Curcumin from turmeric induces expression of glutathione-related genes and blunts the pro-inflammatory cascade. Study.
- 01:16:30 - Piperine from black pepper increases the bioavailability of curcumin. Study.
- 01:17:42 - Aromatic turmerone from turmeric repairs damage to the brain by inducing neural stem cell proliferation. Study.
- 01:22:45 - Decreased sense of smell is a predictor of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Study.
- 01:24:51 - Growth factors from the blood of young mice stimulates stem cell proliferation in the brain and muscles of older mice. Study.
- 01:34:30 - Variants of serotonin-related genes modulate behaviors are associated with personality disorders, impulsivity, and childhood ADHD. Study.
- 01:38:25 - After a single dose of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), people become more averse to harming others. Study.
- 01:43:03 - Serotonin is released in the brains of mice pups when nurtured by their mothers, which induces epigenetic changes that increase glucocorticoid receptor transcription. Study.
- 01:47:39 - Vasopressin influences pair bonding in monogamous prairie voles. Study.
- 01:48:50 - Genetic variants in the vasopressin receptor gene influence pair bonding behavior in humans. Study.
- 01:53:05 - When female mice are deprived of cuddling, they become more promiscuous. Study.
- 01:58:20 - The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) modulates mental health. Review paper.
- 02:00:20 - The differences between different omega-3 fatty acid supplement forms are described in Rhonda’s video: The Phospholipid Brain-DHA Advantage.
- 02:03:20 - Mfsd2a is a transporter for the phospholipid form of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Study.
- 02:14:50 - Alpha-lipoic acid reversed brain aging in rats. Study.
- 02:19:40 - Dietary influences on the conversion of nitrates to nitrites and nitric oxide. Study
- 02:38:30 - The potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer's disease. Study.
- 02:39:23 - People with higher levels of THC after traumatic brain injury were less likely to die. Study.
- 02:40:25 - Low levels of THC protect mice from traumatic brain injury. Study.
- 02:42:40 - THC protects long-term potentiation receptors, which enhance memory and learning, in mice. Study.
- 02:53:25 - Exercise modulates kynurenine metabolism to protect the brain from neurotoxicity and depression. Study.
A metabolic process that produces energy using oxygen. During aerobic respiration, the body metabolizes glucose to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is necessary to power the chemical reactions cells needs to survive. Aerobic respiration is much more efficient and produces ATP much more quickly than anaerobic respiration (respiration without oxygen) because oxygen is an excellent electron acceptor for the chemical reaction. Aerobic respiration takes place in the mitochondria and requires oxygen and glucose, and it produces carbon dioxide, water, and energy.
Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA)
A naturally occurring substance present in the human body and in some foods. ALA is a powerful antioxidant that amplifies the beneficial effects of other antioxidants in the body such as glutathione and coenzyme Q10. It also participates in metabolism by helping to protect mitochondria from oxidative stress, thus ensuring that energy production in the body remains efficient. Some research suggests that ALA may be useful for treating cataracts, liver disease, and some complications of diabetes such as neuropathy.
A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss, spatial disorientation, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral changes. The pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease include amyloid-beta plaques, tau tangles, and reduced brain glucose uptake. Most cases of Alzheimer's disease do not run in families and are described as "sporadic." The primary risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease is aging, with prevalence roughly doubling every five years after age 65. Roughly one-third of people aged 85 and older have Alzheimer's. The major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's is a variant in the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene called APOE4.
An area of the brain located close to the hippocampus, in the frontal portion of the temporal lobe. The amygdala governs our responses to fear, arousal, and emotional stimulation. Poor sleep increases activity within the amygdala.
Amyloid-beta (a-beta or amyloid-beta 42)
A toxic 42 amino acid peptide that aggregates and forms plaques in the brain with age. Amyloid-beta is associated with Alzheimer's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease that can occur in middle or old age and is the most common cause of dementia. Heat shock proteins have been shown to inhibit the early aggregation of amyloid beta 42 and reduce amyloid beta plaque toxicity .
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)
A lipoprotein produced in the liver and the brain. In the brain, ApoE transports fatty acids and cholesterol to neurons. In the bloodstream, it binds and transports cholesterol, bringing it to tissues and recycling it back to the liver. Approximately 25% of people carry a genetic variant of this lipoprotein called ApoE4, which is associated with higher circulating levels of LDL cholesterol and a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.
Star-shaped cells found in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes facilitate neurotransmission, provide nutrients to neurons, maintain neuronal ion balance, and support the blood-brain barrier. Astrocytes also play a role in the repair and scarring process of the brain and spinal cord following traumatic injuries.
A highly selective semi-permeable barrier in the brain made up of endothelial cells connected by tight junctions. The blood-brain barrier separates the circulating blood from the brain's extracellular fluid in the central nervous system. Whereas water, lipid-soluble molecules, and some gases can pass through the blood-brain barrier via passive diffusion, molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function enter via selective transport. The barrier prevents the entry of lipophilic substances that may be neurotoxic via an active transport mechanism.
Five to ten percent of breast cancers in the U.S. are linked to an inherited gene mutation, BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BReast CAncer genes 1 and 2) are the best-known genes linked to breast cancer. People who have a BRCA1/2 mutation have a greatly increased risk of breast cancer and (for women) ovarian cancer.
A waxy lipid produced primarily in the liver and intestines. Cholesterol can be synthesized endogenously and is present in all the body's cells, where it participates in many physiological functions, including fat metabolism, hormone production, vitamin D synthesis, and cell membrane integrity. Dietary sources of cholesterol include egg yolks, meat, and cheese.
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)
A neurodegenerative disorder associated with repetitive brain trauma, including mild concussion injuries. CTE causes executive dysfunction, memory impairment, depression, suicidal behaviors, apathy, poor impulse control, and eventually dementia. Beyond repetitive brain trauma, the risk factors for CTE remain unknown. The hallmarks of CTE include aggregation and accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and transactive response DNA binding protein, or TDP-43. CTE is commonly observed in contact sport athletes and individuals with a history of military combat.
An antioxidant compound produced by the plant Curcuma longa, a member of the ginger family. Curcumin exhibits a wide array of beneficial health effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-diabetes properties. It is responsible for the bright yellow pigment of turmeric, a type of spice commonly used in Indian food.
A broad category of small proteins (~5-20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling. Cytokines are short-lived proteins that are released by cells to regulate the function of other cells. Sources of cytokines include macrophages, B lymphocytes, mast cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and various stromal cells. Types of cytokines include chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines, and tumor necrosis factor.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
An omega-3 fatty acid with 22 carbon atoms that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, sperm, testicles and retina. Most of the DHA in fish and multicellular organisms with access to cold-water oceanic foods originates from photosynthetic and heterotrophic microalgae.
A type of toxin released when bacteria die. Endotoxins can leak through the intestinal wall and pass directly into the bloodstream. The most common endotoxin is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of the cell membrane of gram-negative bacteria. If LPS leaks into the bloodstream, it can trigger an acute inflammatory reaction. LPS has been linked with a number of chronic diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis), cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, autoimmune disorders (celiac disease, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes), and psychiatric disorders (anxiety and depression).
Genetic control by factors other than modification of the genetic code found in the sequence of DNA. Epigenetic changes determine which genes are being expressed, which in turn may influence disease risk. Some epigenetic changes are heritable.
A broad class of supportive cells in the central nervous system. Glial cells surround and provide support for and insulation between neurons. Unlike neurons, glial cells do not conduct electrical impulses. Glial cells are the most abundant cell types in the central nervous system, outnumbering neurons by a ratio of roughly 3 to 1. They are generally smaller than neurons, and they lack axons and dendrites. Types of glial cells include oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, Schwann cells, microglia, and satellite cells.
An antioxidant compound produced by the body’s cells. Glutathione helps prevent damage from oxidative stress caused by the production of reactive oxygen species.
A series of enzyme-dependent reactions that breaks down glucose. Glycolysis converts glucose into pyruvate, releasing energy and producing ATP and NADH. In humans, glycolysis occurs in the cytosol and does not require oxygen.
A system that clears the brain of metabolites and other waste. The glymphatic system comprises a vast arrangement of interstitial fluid-filled cavities surrounding the small blood vessels that serve the brain. During sleep, these perivascular structures increase in size by more than 60 percent. This allows a “flushing” operation in which waste products can be eliminated. The glymphatic system also facilitates the distribution of essential nutrients such as glucose, lipids, and amino acids, as well as other substances, such as growth factors and neuromodulators.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
A circulating lipoprotein that picks up cholesterol in the arteries and deposits it in the liver for reprocessing or excretion. HDL is often referred to as the "good cholesterol."
Biological responses to low-dose exposures to toxins or other stressors such as exercise, heat, cold, fasting, and xenohormetics. Hormetic responses are generally favorable and elicit a wide array of protective mechanisms. Examples of xenohormetic substances include plant polyphenols – molecules that plants produce in response to stress. Some evidence suggests plant polyphenols may have longevity-conferring effects when consumed in the diet.
Condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. Hypoxia may be classified as either generalized, affecting the whole body, or local, affecting a region of the body.
A weak base produced via the breakdown of glucose during exercise. Lactate can be "shuttled" to various tissues including muscle, heart, and brain, where it is used as an energy source. Evidence suggests that lactate is the preferred fuel of the brain. In clinical studies, lactate shows promise as a treatment for inflammatory conditions including traumatic brain injury and as a means to deliver fuel to working muscles.
Large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide with an O-antigen outer core. Lipopolysaccharides are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and elicit strong immune responses in animals. Also known as bacterial endotoxin.
Lipid-protein complexes that allow fats to move through the watery environment inside and outside cells. Lipoproteins emulsify the lipid molecules.
A carotenoid compound present in many fruits and vegetables. Lutein filters high energy blue light and serves as an antioxidant that quenches and scavenges reactive oxygen species. In humans, lutein accumulates in the lens and the macula, an area of the retina responsible for central and high acuity vision.Lutein consumption is inversely related to eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts.
A series of connective tissue membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. The meninges are separated by cerebrospinal fluid, which acts as a cushion, supporting the brain and protecting it from damage that might be caused by movement or trauma.
A mucopolysaccharide or glycoprotein that is the chief constituent of mucus secreted by the epithelial cells lining the gut in order to produce a barrier preventing infection by microorganisms inhabiting the gut.
A sulfur-containing amino acid. N-acetylcysteine promotes the body’s production of glutathione, an important antioxidant that helps reduce oxidative damage. It is commonly used for the treatment of acetaminophen overdose and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N-acetylcysteine modulates several neurological pathways, including glutamate dysregulation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. It may be useful as an adjunctive therapy for many psychiatric conditions, including PTSD and depression.
A small molecule synthesized by nitric oxide synthase from the amino acid L-arginine. Nitric oxide is a highly reactive signaling molecule that freely diffuses across cell membranes. It regulates a variety of biological functions throughout the body, including vascular tone and blood flow; leukocyte adhesion and platelet aggregation; and mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Abnormalities in vascular nitric oxide production and transport are associated with hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension.
A chemical compound produced in the body through the oxidation of nitric oxide or through a reduction of nitrate by commensal bacteria in the mouth and gut. Nitrites are also obtained in the diet, with roughly 80 percent of dietary nitrates derived from vegetable consumption. Foods rich in nitrites include spinach, celery, beets, and tomatoes, among others. Nitrites are also used as additives to processed meats, such as bacon or sausage. Whereas nitrites in vegetables improve oxygen efficiency and delivery by dilating blood vessels, which is associated with reduced blood pressure, decreased age-related cognitive decline, and enhanced blood flow, nitrites in processed meats convert to nitrosamines, which are associated with increased risk of developing several types of cancer.
Chemical compounds of the chemical structure R1N(-R2)-N=O, that is, a nitroso group bonded to an amine. Approximately 90% of nitrosamine compounds studies were deemed to be carcinogenic. Nitrites, often used as chemical preservatives, readily form nitrosamines. Frying foods can enhance the formation of nitrosamines, while ascorbic acid has been shown to inhibit their formation.
A class of chemical compounds produced in plants in response to stressors. Polyphenols contribute to the bitterness, astringency, color, flavor, and fragrance of many fruits and vegetables. They often serve as deterrents to insect or herbivore consumption. When consumed in the human diet, polyphenols exert many health benefits and may offer protection against development of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis, and neurodegenerative diseases. Dietary sources of polyphenols include grapes, apples, pears, cherries, and berries, which provide as much as 200 to 300 mg polyphenols per 100 grams fresh weight.
The area of the brain located in the front portion of the frontal lobe, just behind the area commonly known as the forehead. The prefrontal cortex is involved in a variety of higher cognitive functions and behaviors such as executive function and expression of appropriate social behavior.
A group of lipid-signaling molecules that have diverse hormone-like effects. Prostaglandins play roles in inflammation, vasoconstriction or vasodilation, aggregation or disaggregation of platelets, calcium movement, cell growth, and thermoregulation. Prostaglandins are produced in many places throughout the human body.
Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS)
Nitrogen-containing chemically-reactive molecules generated by the immune system. RNS are produced in animals when nitric oxide reacts with superoxide to form peroxynitrite. They can damage cellular components, including lipids, proteins, mitochondria, and DNA. Examples of RNS include nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, and nitrogen dioxide.
A related byproduct, reactive oxygen species, is generated by oxidative phosphorylation and immune activation. Examples of ROS include: peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen.
The two species are often collectively referred to as ROS/RNS. Preventing and efficiently repairing damage from RNS (nitrosative stress) and ROS (oxidative stress) are among the key challenges our cells face in their fight against diseases of aging, including cancer.
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
Oxygen-containing chemically-reactive molecules generated by oxidative phosphorylation and immune activation. ROS can damage cellular components, including lipids, proteins, mitochondria, and DNA. Examples of ROS include: peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen.
A related byproduct, reactive nitrogen species, is also produced naturally by the immune system. Examples of RNS include nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, and nitrogen dioxide.
The two species are often collectively referred to as ROS/RNS. Preventing and efficiently repairing damage from ROS (oxidative stress) and RNS (nitrosative stress) are among the key challenges our cells face in their fight against diseases of aging, including cancer.
A polyphenolic compound produced in plants in response to injury or pathogenic attack from bacteria or fungi. Resveratrol exerts a diverse array of biological effects, including antitumor, antioxidant, antiviral, and hormonal activities. It activates sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an enzyme that deacetylates proteins and contributes to cellular regulation (including autophagy). Dietary sources of resveratrol include grapes, blueberries, raspberries, and mulberries.
Resveratrol Autophagy ↑ Deacetylases (especially SIRT1) → ↓ Protein Acetylation → AutophagyVIEW RESVERATROL TOPIC
A small molecule that functions as both a neurotransmitter and a hormone. Serotonin is produced in the brain and gut and facilitates the bidirectional communication between the two. It regulates many physiological functions, including sleep, appetite, mood, thermoregulation, and others. Many antidepressants are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which work by preventing the reabsorption of serotonin, thereby increasing extracellular levels of the hormone.
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
A change in one nucleotide DNA sequence in a gene that may or may not alter the function of the gene. SNPs, commonly called "snips," can affect phenotype such as hair and eye color, but they can also affect a person's disease risk, absorption and metabolism of nutrients, and much more. SNPs differ from mutations in terms of their frequency within a population: SNPs are detectable in >1 percent of the population, while mutations are detectable in <1 percent.
A type of reactive oxygen species. Singlet oxygen is generated in cells as a result of exposure to UV light or visible irradiation. It induces damage in cellular proteins, keratinocytes (a type of skin cell), and DNA.
Abnormal aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau, a protein found in the brain. Tau tangles are associated with traumatic brain injury and chronic traumatic encephalopathy and are one of the defining characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease. They inhibit normal brain function, and the degree of cognitive impairment in diseases such as Alzheimer’s is significantly correlated with their presence.
The primary psychoactive substance present in the leaves of the marijuana (cannabis) plant. THC alters the functioning of the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex, leading to altered perception and changes in cognition, such as short-term memory impairment. THC’s chemical structure is similar to the brain’s endogenous cannabinoid anandamide, allowing it to bind to anandamide receptors to elicit its effects.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI)
Damage to the brain caused by a sudden blow, penetrating injury, or lack of oxygen, ranging from mild to severe. TBIs can induce a wide range of short- or long-term changes in the brain that affect thinking, sensation, language, personality, and emotion. In addition, TBI may increase the risk for developing epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other brain disorders. Nearly 75 percent of TBIs that occur each year are concussions or other forms of mild TBI. Even mild TBIs damage the delicate tissues and blood vessels of the brain and can result in altered brain function that can persist for days, weeks, or months. Approximately 15 percent of concussed athletes experience symptoms as long as one year after their injury, a condition called persistent post-concussion syndrome, or PPCS, typically after returning to play too quickly.
A molecule composed of a glycerol molecule bound to three fatty acids. Triglycerides are the primary component of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). They serve as a source of energy. Triglycerides are metabolized in the intestine, absorbed by intestinal cells, and combined with cholesterol and proteins to form chylomicrons, which are transported in lymph to the bloodstream.
A rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family that grows wild in the forests of South and Southeast Asia. Turmeric’s strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are attributed to its high concentration of curcumin. After being boiled and dried out, turmeric has a golden-orange color.
A pituitary hormone that acts to promote the retention of water by the kidneys and increase blood pressure.
A foreign chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced by or expected to be present within. It can also cover substances that are present in much higher concentrations than are usual. Specifically, drugs such as antibiotics are xenobiotics in humans because the human body does not produce them itself, nor are they part of a normal food.
A carotenoid compound present in plants, algae, and bacteria. Zeaxanthin is an antioxidant that quenches and scavenges reactive oxygen species. It preferentially accumulates in the lens and macula of the eye. Some observational studies demonstrate that high intake of zeaxanthin and lutein (also a carotenoid) is associated with a 20 percent reduced risk of developing cataracts and up to 40 percent reduced risk of developing age-related macular degeneration.
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