Joe Rogan Experience #459 - Dr. Rhonda Patrick
Posted on February 20th 2014 (over 5 years)
Dr. Rhonda Patrick makes her first appearance on the Joe Rogan Experience.
A few of the topics and studies mentioned in this episode include...
- 00:10:30 - Extreme obesity dramatically shortens life expectancy. News release.
- 00:11:40 - Vitamin D regulates serotonin synthesis. Study.
- 00:13:00 - Exercise can increase tryptophan transport into the brain. Study.
- 00:14:25 - Consumption of branched-chain amino acids can deplete tryptophan in the brain as much as use of methamphetamine can. Study.
- 00:20:27 - Obesity negatively influences vitamin D bioavailability. Study.
- 00:38:05 - Rhonda Patrick’s video: Rebuttal to Anti-Vitamin Editorial: "Enough is Enough"
- 00:52:40 - The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduced symptoms of bipolar depression. Study.
- 00:54:25 - Telomere length is biomarker for aging. Study.
- 00:56:02 - Twins with higher serum vitamin D concentrations had longer leukocyte telomere length. Study.
- 00:56:45 - Twins who exercised more had longer leukocyte telomere length. Study.
- 01:02:27 - Antipsychotic drugs cause brain atrophy in schizophrenic patients over time. Study.
- 01:05:23 - The omega-3 fatty acid DHA increases dopamine in the frontal lobe of the brain in schizophrenics. Study.
- 01:23:10 - Mice without IGF-1 receptor have extended lifespan and greater resistance to oxidative stress. Study.
- 01:43:30 - Caloric restriction delays disease onset and mortality in rhesus monkeys. Study.
- 01:48:40 - The grandchildren of boys who lived during periods of famine lived longer than the grandchildren of boys who lived during periods of plenty. Study.
- 01:52:55 - Environmental enrichment creates epigenetic changes that benefit learning and memory in rodents and these benefits transfer to offspring. Study.
- 02:05:00 - NASA study showed that gravity influenced expression of genes involved in metastasis. Study.
- 02:09:18 - Approximately 70% of herbal supplements do not contain what is advertised. Study.
- 02:14:45 - Supplemental vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids influenced behavior of young adult prisoners. Study.
- 02:32:57 - High-dose intravenous vitamin C was beneficial for cancer patients. Study.
Poisonous cancer-causing chemicals produced by certain molds present in soil, decaying vegetation, grasses, and grains. Aflatoxins are commonly found in improperly stored staple crops such as cassava, chili peppers, corn, cotton seed, millet, peanuts, rice, sesame seeds, sorghum, sunflower seeds, tree nuts, wheat, and a variety of spices. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus markedly increases risk of liver cancer.  Henry, Sara H., F. Xavier Bosch, and J. C. Bowers. "Aflatoxin, hepatitis and worldwide liver cancer risks." Mycotoxins and food safety. Springer, Boston, MA, 2002. 229-233( https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4615-0629-4_24).
Bisphenol A (BPA)
A chemical used during the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. BPA is an endocrine disruptor. It can mimic naturally occurring hormones in the body like estrogens, androgens, and thyroid hormones, potentially altering normal hormonal signals. BPA exposure is widespread due to extensive use of plastics and other BPA-containing products.
A secondary bile acid that is produced in order to aid in the digestion of fats and oils. It causes DNA damage and can cause tumorigenesis, particularly in the colon.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
An omega-3 fatty acid with 22 carbon atoms that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, sperm, testicles and retina. Most of the DHA in fish and multicellular organisms with access to cold-water oceanic foods originates from photosynthetic and heterotrophic microalgae.
A neurotransmitter best known for its role in motor, motivation, and pleasure control. Dopamine also functions as a paracrine (cell-to-cell) hormone in other parts of the body. It is derived from tyrosine and is the precursor to norepinephrine and epinephrine. Some evidence suggests that dopamine may also be involved in pain modulation.
Genetic control by factors other than modification of the genetic code found in the sequence of DNA. Epigenetic changes determine which genes are being expressed, which in turn may influence disease risk. Some epigenetic changes are heritable.
A type of water-soluble B-vitamin, also called vitamin B9. Folate is critical in the metabolism of nucleic acid precursors and several amino acids, as well as in methylation reactions. Severe deficiency in folate can cause megaloblastic anemia, which causes fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Certain genetic variations in folate metabolism, particularly those found in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene influences folate status. Inadequate folate status during early pregnancy increases the risk of certain birth defects called neural tube defects, or NTDs, such as spina bifida, anencephaly, and other similar conditions. Folate deficiency and elevated concentrations of homocysteine in the blood are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Low folate status and/or high homocysteine concentrations are associated with cognitive dysfunction in aging (from mild impairments to dementia). The synthetic form of folate is called folic acid. Sources of folate include most fruits and vegetables, especially green leafy vegetables.
An antioxidant produced within cells that converts oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione. Glutathione reductase is essential for protection against oxidative damage. Oxidative damage is a key factor in many diseases.
An amino acid present in the blood. Homocysteine is produced during the metabolism of methionine. Abnormalities in methionine metabolism can lead to elevated homocysteine levels, a condition called hyperhomocysteinemia. Elevated homocysteine levels can contribute to arterial plaque formation and increase the risk of clot formation. Some evidence suggests that elevated homocysteine levels double the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Homocysteine levels vary according to dietary intake, with highest levels associated with consumption of animal protein. Variants in the genes that encode for the enzymes that metabolize homocysteine, specifically MTHFR, or methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, markedly increase the risk of developing a wide array of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer. High intake of dietary folate (present in leafy greens and other fruits and vegetables) can modulate the harmful effects associated with MTHRF.
Biological responses to low-dose exposures to toxins or other stressors such as exercise, heat, cold, fasting, and xenohormetics. Hormetic responses are generally favorable and elicit a wide array of protective mechanisms. Examples of xenohormetic substances include plant polyphenols – molecules that plants produce in response to stress. Some evidence suggests plant polyphenols may have longevity-conferring effects when consumed in the diet.
A peptide hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets cells. Insulin maintains normal blood glucose levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose into cells; regulating carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism; and promoting cell division and growth. Insulin resistance, a characteristic of type 2 diabetes, is a condition in which normal insulin levels do not produce a biological response, which can lead to high blood glucose levels.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)
One of the most potent natural activators of the AKT signaling pathway, stimulator of cell growth and proliferation, potent inhibitor of programmed cell death, primary mediator of the effects of growth hormone, and has been implicated in contributing to aging and enhancing the growth of cancer after it has been initiated. Similar in molecular structure to insulin, IGF-1 plays a role during childhood for growth and continues later in life to have anabolic, as well as neurotrophic effects. Protein intake increases IGF-1 levels in humans, independent of total caloric consumption.
Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
A series of enzymatic reactions that aerobic organisms use to produce energy. Also known as the citric acid cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the Krebs cycle takes place in the mitochondria. It comprises eight reactions and eight intermediates that break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and carbon dioxide. It also produces the precursors of certain amino acids and the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), a cofactor for many biological reactions.
A medium chain fatty acid that is composed of 12 hydrocarbons that has very potent antiviral activity, particularly against viruses that contain a viral envelope. It also has antibacterial activity and it plays a role in appetite suppression. Coconut oil is a good source of lauric acid.
A class of proteins present in many edible plants, such as grains or legumes. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding molecules. They have been referred to as antinutrients for their ability to impair absorption of some nutrients. Many lectins possess hemagglutinin properties, which means they can bind to blood cells and cause them to aggregate. Cooking typically denatures lectins in foods.
Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCTs)
A type of triglyceride containing between 6-12 carbon atoms that is metabolized differently than triglycerides containing more than 12 carbons. Examples of MCTs include: caprylic acid (C8), capric acid (C10), and lauric acid (C12).
Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)
A gene coding for an enzyme that converts homocysteine into methionine; a critical step in the methyl cycle. Natural variation in this gene is common among healthy people, however, some variants have been reported to influence susceptibility to occlusive vascular disease, neural tube defects, Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia, colon cancer, and acute leukemia.
Tiny organelles inside cells that produce energy in the presence of oxygen. Mitochondria are referred to as the "powerhouses of the cell" because of their role in the production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Mitochondria are continuously undergoing a process of self-renewal known as mitophagy in order to repair damage that occurs during their energy-generating activities.
A protein produced predominantly by skeletal muscle. Myostatin negatively regulates the growth and differentiation of muscle cells. Genetic variants in the gene for myostatin can cause muscle hypertrophy (excessive growth). Mice engineered to lack myostatin exhibit about a doubling of skeletal muscle mass throughout the body. Myostatin inhibitors block the action of myostatin and have been used therapeutically in muscle wasting diseases and also in the bodybuilding community.
Omega-3 fatty acid
A type of polyunsaturated fat that is essential for human health. Omega-3 fatty acids influence cell membrane integrity and affect the function of membrane-bound cellular receptors. They participate in pathways involved in the biosynthesis of hormones that regulate blood clotting, contraction and relaxation of artery walls, and inflammation. They have been shown to help prevent heart disease and stroke, may help control lupus, eczema, and rheumatoid arthritis, and may play protective roles in cancer and other conditions. Omega-3 fatty acids include alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). ALA is found mainly in plant oils such as flaxseed, soybean, and canola oils. DHA and EPA are found in fish and other seafood. The human body can convert some ALA into EPA and then to DHA, but the efficiency of the process varies between individuals.
The area of the brain located in the front portion of the frontal lobe, just behind the area commonly known as the forehead. The prefrontal cortex is involved in a variety of higher cognitive functions and behaviors such as executive function and expression of appropriate social behavior.
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
Oxygen-containing chemically-reactive molecules generated by oxidative phosphorylation and immune activation. ROS can damage cellular components, including lipids, proteins, mitochondria, and DNA. Examples of ROS include: peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen.
A related byproduct, reactive nitrogen species, is also produced naturally by the immune system. Examples of RNS include nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, and nitrogen dioxide.
The two species are often collectively referred to as ROS/RNS. Preventing and efficiently repairing damage from ROS (oxidative stress) and RNS (nitrosative stress) are among the key challenges our cells face in their fight against diseases of aging, including cancer.
A small molecule that functions as both a neurotransmitter and a hormone. Serotonin is produced in the brain and gut and facilitates the bidirectional communication between the two. It regulates many physiological functions, including sleep, appetite, mood, thermoregulation, and others. Many antidepressants are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which work by preventing the reabsorption of serotonin, thereby increasing extracellular levels of the hormone.
An enzyme that extends the telomeres of chromosomes. Telomerase adds specific nucleotide sequences to the ends of existing chromosomes. Telomerase activity is highly regulated during development, and its activity is at an almost undetectable level of activity in fully developed cells. This lack of activity causes the cell to age. If telomerase is activated in a cell, the cell will continue to grow and divide, or become "immortal," which is important to both aging and cancer. Telomerase enzyme activity has been detected in more than 90 percent of human cancers.
Distinctive structures comprised of short, repetitive sequences of DNA located on the ends of chromosomes. Telomeres form a protective “cap” – a sort of disposable buffer that gradually shortens with age – that prevents chromosomes from losing genes or sticking to other chromosomes during cell division. When the telomeres on a cell’s chromosomes get too short, the chromosome reaches a “critical length,” and the cell stops dividing (senescence) or dies (apoptosis). Telomeres are replenished by the enzyme telomerase, a reverse transcriptase.
An essential amino acid. Tryptophan plays key roles in the biosynthesis of proteins and is a precursor to several molecules with physiological significance, including melatonin, niacin, and the neurotransmitter serotonin. Inflammation causes tryptophan to be reallocated from serotonin synthesis to that of kynurenine, which then converts to the neurotoxin quinolinic acid, leading to depression. Dietary sources of tryptophan include most protein-based foods, such as meat, beans, or nuts.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Thiamine is a water-soluble B-vitamin, also known as vitamin B1, and a cofactor for enzymes involved in the breakdown and metabolism of carbohydrates, certain amino acids, and fatty acids. These enzymes help to generate energy in the form of ATP and modulate levels of amino acids that can cause deleterious effects. Thiamine is highly water soluble and is not retained in the body. For this reason, it must be continually obtained from the diet. Dietary sources of thiamine include vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and pork livers. Deficiencies in thiamine result in neurological, muscular, and cardiac symptoms, and can occur in as little as 18 days of total dietary depletion.
A fat-soluble vitamin stored in the liver and fatty tissues. Vitamin D plays key roles in several physiological processes, such as the regulation of blood pressure, calcium homeostasis, immune function, and the regulation of cell growth. In the skin, vitamin D decreases proliferation and enhances differentiation. Vitamin D synthesis begins when 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is found primarily in the skin’s epidermal layer, reacts to ultraviolet light and converts to vitamin D. Subsequent processes convert D to calcitriol, the active form of the vitamin. Vitamin D can be obtained from dietary sources, too, such as salmon, mushrooms, and many fortified foods.
A type of fat-soluble vitamin. Vitamin K is critical for blood clotting, bone metabolism, prevention of blood vessel mineralization, and regulation of various cellular functions. Naturally occurring forms of vitamin K include phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and a family of molecules called menaquinones (vitamin K2). Vitamin K1 is synthesized by plants and is the major form in the diet. Vitamin K2 molecules are synthesized by the gut microbiota and found in fermented foods and some animal products (especially liver). The body has limited vitamin K storage capacity, so the body recycles it in a vitamin K redox cycle and reuses it multiple times.
An anticoagulant drug, commonly sold as Coumadin. Warfarin is used to prevent blood clots from forming or growing larger in the blood and blood vessels. It works by inhibiting vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is prescribed for people who have experienced or are at risk of experiencing atrial fibrillation, cardiac valve replacement, or myocardial infarction (heart attack). Warfarin is also used to treat or prevent venous thrombosis (swelling and blood clot in a vein) and pulmonary embolism (a blood clot in the lung). Warfarin is in a class of medications called anticoagulants, often commonly referred to as "blood thinners."
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