Satchin Panda, Ph.D. on Time-Restricted Feeding and Its Effects on Obesity, Muscle Mass & Heart Health
Posted on July 1st 2016 (over 1 year)
Dr. Rhonda Patrick speaks with Dr. Satchin Panda, a professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla California. Satchin's work deals specifically with the timing of food and it's relationship with our biological clocks, which are governed by a circadian rhythm.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
ATP is used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer. It is one of the end products of photophosphorylation, cellular respiration, and fermentation and used by enzymes and structural proteins in many cellular processes, including biosynthetic reactions, motility, and cell division.
Progressive mental deterioration that can occur in middle or old age, due to generalized degeneration of the brain associated with the pathophysiological characteristic of buildup of tau tangles and amyloid-beta plaques in the brain. Alzheimer's is the most common cause of premature senility.
An enzyme that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis. The net effect of AMPK activation is stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, stimulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake, inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis, inhibition of adipocyte lipolysis and lipogenesis, and modulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells.
A ketone body that is synthesized in the liver from acetyl-CoA when fasting or in ketosis. It can be used to produce energy inside the mitochondria and has also been shown to act as a signaling molecule that alters gene expression by inhibiting class 1 histone deacetylases.
The catabolic process by which fatty acid molecules are broken down in the mitochondria. The product of this break down of fatty acids is acetyl-CoA, FADH2, NADH and H+
Proteins that provide favorable conditions for the correct folding of other proteins. Newly made proteins usually must fold from a linear chain of amino acids into a three-dimensional form. Group II chaperonins, the variety found in eukaryotic cytosol, are also referred to as CCT, which stands for "chaperonin containing TCP-1."
Brown adipose tissues (BAT)
One of two types of fat or adipose tissue (the other being white adipose tissue, or white fat) found in mammals. Its primary function is to generate body heat. In contrast to white adipocytes (fat cells), which contain a single lipid droplet, brown adipocytes contain numerous smaller droplets and a much higher number of mitochondria, which make it brown. Brown fat also contains more capillaries than white fat, since it has a greater need for oxygen than most tissues.
Restricting caloric intake by 30% has been shown to extend lifespan in some animals.
Proteins that provide favorable conditions for the correct folding of other proteins. Newly made proteins usually must fold from a linear chain of amino acids into a three-dimensional form. Group II chaperonins, the variant found in eukaryotic cytosol, are also referred to as CCT, which stands for "chaperonin containing TCP-1."
Recurring naturally on a twenty-four-hour cycle, even in the absence of light fluctuations. Every cell in the human body follows a circadian rhythm, which governs when a cell is most metabolically active, when hormones are produced, when repair processes are activated, and more.
A gene encoding a transcription factor (CLOCK) that affects both the persistence and period of circadian rhythms. CLOCK functions as an essential activator of downstream elements in the pathway critical to the generation of circadian rhythms. In humans, polymorphisms in the CLOCK gene have been associated with increased insomnia, weight loss difficulty, and recurrence of major depressive episodes in patients with bipolar disorder.
Complex carbohydrate foods provide vitamins, minerals, and fiber that are important to the health of an individual. As opposed to simple or refined sugars, which do not have the vitamins, minerals, and fiber found in complex and natural carbohydrates. Simple sugars are often called "empty calories" because they have little to no nutritional value.
A steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones, which is produced in humans by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex within the adrenal gland. It is released in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration. It functions to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis and to suppress the immune system.
Cryptochromes are a class of flavoproteins that are sensitive to blue light. Found in plants and animals, they are involved in the circadian rhythm and in the sensing of magnetic fields in a number of species.
Animals characterized by higher activity during the day and sleeping more at night.
Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of compounds that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
A type of organelle in the cells of eukaryotic organisms that forms as interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes and is the site of protein synthesis, whereas smooth ER functions in lipid manufacture and metabolism.
A molecule composed of carboxylic acid with a long hydrocarbon chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Fatty acids are an important component of cell membranes and are key sources of fuel because, when metabolized, they yield large quantities of ATP. Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids for this purpose.
Refers to how active a gene is. Genes that are highly expressed are active and producing protein and genes that are not expressed are not active.
A metabolic pathway in which the liver produces glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates including glycogenic amino acids (from protein) and glycerol (from lipids).
A polysaccharide, molecularly similar to starch, constituting the principal carbohydrate store material in animals and occurring chiefly in the liver and muscle. Glycogen makes up 5 to 6% of the fresh weight of the liver, and around 1-2% of the muscle mass, the amount of which is affected by things like physical training, basal metabolic rate (BMR), and eating habits.
GWAS (Genome Wide Association Study)
An examination of many common genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait. GWAS typically focus on associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and traits like major diseases by comparing the DNA of participants having phenotype for a particular trait or disease to those who don't.
Heart Rate Variability (HRV)
The physiological phenomenon of variation in the time interval between heartbeats. It is measured by the variation in the beat-to-beat interval. Decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity or increased sympathetic activity will result in reduced HRV. Reduced HRV has been shown to be a predictor of mortality after myocardial infarction, and a range of other outcomes/conditions may also be associated.  Kleiger, Robert E., et al. "Decreased heart rate variability and its association with increased mortality after acute myocardial infarction." _The American journal of cardiology_ 59.4 (1987): 256-262.
The hippocampus is a small organ located within the brain's medial temporal lobe and forms an important part of the limbic system, the region that regulates emotions. The hippocampus is associated mainly with memory, in particular long-term memory through use of long-term potentiation. The organ also plays an important role in learning and spatial navigation.
Molecules that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, or prolonged intense exercise. Examples include acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone. These ketone bodies are readily used as energy by a diverse array of cell types, including neurons.
An opsin-like protein, sensitive to light with a peak sensitivity around 480 nm, and found in the very small proportion of retinal ganglion cells which are photosensitive. It is believed to be the visual pigment that synchronizes the circadian cycle to the day-night cycle as well as being involved in the control of pupil size and the release of melatonin.
An organelle found in animal cells that is the site for synthesis, storage and transport of melanin, the most common light-absorbing pigment found in the animal kingdom. Melanosomes are responsible for color and photoprotection in animal cells and tissues.
A hormone found in animals (and conserved in plants, fungi, and bacteria) that is critical in regulating our relationship with the light-dark circadian cycle down to a cellular level and also functions as an antioxidant. Melatonin regulates over 500 genes, and, interestingly, has been shown to be elevated in the blind and may play a part in their decreased cancer risk.  Feychting, Maria, Bill Österlund, and Anders Ahlbom. "Reduced cancer incidence among the blind."_ Epidemiology_ (1998): 490-494.
The thousands of biochemical processes that run all of the various cellular processes that produce energy. Since energy generation is so fundamental to all other processes, in some cases the word metabolism may refer more broadly to the sum of all chemical reactions in the cell.
The process by which new mitochondria are made inside of cells. Many factors can activate biogenesis including exercise, cold shock, heat shock, fasting, and ketones. PGC-1 is the transcription factor serving as the master regulator of this process.
Nicotinamide riboside (NR)
A pyridine-nucleoside form of vitamin B3 that functions as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD+. NR has been proposed as a potential anti-aging drug. NAD+ is a coenzyme found in all living cells used to transfer chemical energy from a food source to the electron transport chain.
Pancreatic Islet Cells
A type of cell found in the pancreas that make up 65-80% of the cells in its islets. The primary function of a beta cell is to store and release insulin. These are the cells which are believed to be the cause of type 1 diabetes under circumstances in which the cells themselves are under attack as part of an autoimmune response. In contrast, type 2 diabetics still have functional beta cells, but their body has, instead, become less responsive to the insulin produced.
PGC-1α (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha)
The master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Endurance exercise has been shown to activate the PGC-1α gene in human skeletal muscle. It is strongly induced by cold exposure, linking this environmental stimulus to adaptive thermogenesis. Recently PGC-1a has been implicated as a potential therapy for Parkinson's Disease by conferring protective effects on mitochondrial metabolism.
A portmanteau of the words protein and homeostasis. Proteostasis is maintained through the competing and integrated biological pathways within cells that control the biogenesis, folding, trafficking and degradation of proteins present within and outside the cell.
In a state or period of inactivity or dormancy.
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
Chemically reactive molecules containing oxygen, which are generated by oxidative phosphorylation, as well as immune activation and can damage cells (including lipids, proteins, mitochondria and DNA). **Reactive Nitrogen Species** are another type of damaging byproduct that is produced naturally by the immune system. The two species are often referred to collectively as **ROS/RNS**. Examples of ROS include: peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen. RNS are produced in animals starting with the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide to form peroxynitrite. Preventing and efficiently repairing damage from ROS (**oxidative stress**) and RNS (**nitrosative stress**) is one of the key challenges our cells face in their fight against diseases of aging, including cancer.
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC)
A type of neuron located in the ganglion cell layer of the retina. Ganglion cells receive visual information from photoreceptors via two intermediate neuron types: bipolar cells and retina amacrine cells. A small percentage of ganglion cells contribute little or nothing to vision, but, instead, contain melanopsin and contribute to circadian rhythm and pupillary light reflex (the resizing of the pupil).
A pigment found in the rods of the retina that is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Rhodopsin is extremely sensitive to light, and thus enables vision in low-light conditions. When rhodopsin is exposed to light, it immediately photobleaches, but is regenerated fully in about 45 minutes. Unlike melanopsin, rhodopsin is used in the formation of visual images and is also more sensitive to light.
A plain characterized by coarse grasses and scattered tree growth, especially on the margins of the tropics where the rainfall is seasonal, as in eastern Africa.
Environmental factors which may reduce reproductive success in a population and thus contribute to evolutionary change or extinction through the process of natural selection.
Short-Chain Fatty Acids
Also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and possess an aliphatic tail of less than six carbon atoms. Produced when dietary fiber is fermented in the colon, and primarily absorbed through the portal vein during lipid digestion. The SCFA butyrate is particularly important for colon health because it is the primary energy source for colonic cells and has anti-carcinogenic as well as anti-inflammatory properties.
A carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as an energy store and is the most common carbohydrate in human diets, contained in large amounts in staple foods such as potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), rice, and cassava. Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odorless powder.
A tiny region located in the hypothalamus responsible for controlling circadian rhythms. The SCN maintains control across the body by synchronizing "slave oscillators," which exhibit their own near-24-hour rhythms and control circadian phenomena in local tissue.
The Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
A series of enzymatic reactions that catalyzes the aerobic metabolism of fuel molecules to carbon dioxide and water, thereby generating energy for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules.
Time-restricted Feeding (TRF)
Also known as time-restricted eating. Eating within an 8 to 12-hour time window that begins with when the first food or non-water drink enters your mouth. Dr. Panda's research has demonstrated that TRF has health benefits that may include reductions in fat mass, increases in lean muscle mass, lower inflammation, improved heart function with age, increased mitochondrial volume, ketone body production, improved repair processes, and aerobic endurance improvements.
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