Joe Rogan Experience #502 - Dr. Rhonda Patrick
Posted on May 16th 2014 (about 5 years)
Dr. Rhonda Patrick makes her second appearance on the Joe Rogan Experience.
A few of the topics and studies mentioned in this episode include...
- 00:02:42 - The feelings of anxiety that accompany stressful or important events, eating spicy foods, or sauna use arise from dynorphin release in the brain, which the body counters via the release of endorphins.
- 00:06:22 - Heat from a sauna also induces the release of endorphins via dynorphin agonization. Article.
- 00:06:45 - Hormesis, a biological response to stressors such as exercise, EGCC in green tea, or polyphenols in fruit, switches on a host of protective mechanisms that help the body better handle stressors.
- 00:09:15 - Exercise promotes the growth of new brain cells (neurogenesis) via bone-derived neurotrophic factor, promoting the formation of new memories and the loss of old ones.
- 00:12:00 - Powerful amygdala activation from either extreme excitement or fear increases episodic memory.
- 00:12:15 - Serotonin plays a role in brain function and dysfunction, behavior, and episodic memory. Study.
- 00:13:38 - The massive serotonin release that accompanies MDMA use switches off serotonin receptors, which may result in the low that follows.
- 00:16:27 - People who take certain serotonergic medications, supplements, or drugs may experience serotonin syndrome.
- 00:17:22 - The majority of the serotonin in the human body is made in the gut, not the brain.
- 00:17:44 - The genes that convert tryptophan to serotonin found in the gut (TPH1) and in the brain (TPH2) contain a specific nucleotide sequence known as a vitamin D response element that represses the production of serotonin in the gut and increases serotonin in the brain.
- 00:18:45 - Serotonin made in the gut has been shown to cause gut inflammation by activating T cells and causing them to proliferate, but knocking out TPH1 in a mouse model of colitis ameliorates the inflammation associated with the disorder. Study.
- 00:21:55 - Theoretical vitamin D mechanism may play a role in the development of autism by depriving the developing fetus of serotonin if the mother is deficient in vitamin D.
- 00:23:45 - Autism appears to develop during pregnancy and may be at least partially related to environment.
- 00:24:00 - Estrogen can activate TPH2 in lieu of vitamin D, potentially explaining why autism is predominantly found in males.
- 00:24:30 - Gut inflammation is common among people with autism.
- 00:24:45 - 5-HTP bypasses the normal tryptophan hydroxylase conversion, allowing it to be converted into serotonin more rapidly, so it can be absorbed in the gut instead of the brain.
- 00:25:35 - Tryptophan is transported into the brain where it can be converted into serotonin by tryptophan hydroxylase, but it competes for transport with branched-chain amino acids, which are transported preferentially.
- 00:25:55 - The sleepiness associated with eating foods high in tryptophan (such as turkey) may actually be related to their branched-chain amino acid content.
- 00:28:00 - The 5-HTP supplement New Mood was originally created to facilitate post-MDMA recovery.
- 00:30:30 - The psychedelic compound dimethyltryptamine, known as DMT, is produced in the pineal gland, and its release may explain the altered perception often described as a "near-death experience."
- 00:35:10 - Animals in the wild consume hallucinogenic plants. Video.
- 00:39:37 – Approximately 70 percent of the population in the US is vitamin D deficient.Infographic
- 00:45:00 - A brief description of the structure and role of telomeres.
- 00:48:50 - The enzyme telomerase rebuilds telomeres, but it is found primarily in stem cells and cancer cells, the latter of which can hijack telomerase to become immortal.
- 00:50:10 - Werner's syndrome, a type of aging disorder, involves excessive telomere shortening.
- 00:53:33 - Aging is a function of DNA damage, which is caused by normal metabolism as well as abnormalities of metabolism, such as obesity.
- 00:56:50 - Extracts of the astragalus root, the key ingredient in the dietary supplement TA-65, promoted telomerase activity and increase telomere length as much as 40 percent in humans. Study.
- 00:58:44 - Mice that were given TA-65 exhibited re-activation of telomerase and reversal of aging, but did not get cancer. Study.
- 01:01:30 - Telomerase reactivation might promote the growth of pre-cancerous cells.
- 01:03:05 - pH alters the microbial makeup of the gut, which affects the immune system.
- 01:07:50 - Cancer cells acquire the ability to generate energy from glucose, but even in the absence of glucose they can grow if glutamine is present.
- 01:09:50 - The body needs nutrients for overall health and to build new DNA, but those nutrients can be harmful in the setting of cancer because they allow cancer cells to proliferate.
- 01:12:00 - Isothiocyanates derived from cruciferous vegetables exhibit anti-cancer properties.
- 01:14:00 - Isothiocyanates in kale compete with thyroid iodine uptake but probably only in the setting of iodine deficiency.
- 01:16:35 - Protective mechanisms, such as the activation of tumor suppressor genes, are induced by hormesis – a type of protective stress response triggered by things like isothiocyanates.
- 01:20:20 - Plants produce toxic compounds that have a net positive effect because they induce hormesis.
- 01:25:10 - Documented cases of oxalate-related kidney disease caused by raw juicing exist but are rare.
- 01:27:30 - Eating a balanced diet will prevent most of the problems associated with extreme dietary practices.
- 01:29:07 - Putrefying bacteria in the gut use heme from red meat as a cofactor for creating hydrogen sulfide for energy, but hydrogen sulfide prevents human gut cells from making energy (ATP), causing the breakdown of the gut mucus barrier.
- 01:32:25 - Debunking the claims that vitamins and antioxidants cause cancer.
- 01:36:05 - Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials are less effective for nutrition research due to differences in vitamin and drug status between study participants.
- 01:43:04 - Vitamins and minerals are essential for preventing disease and may have little benefit in severely ill people.
- 01:46:28 - Overview of SELECT, the selenium and vitamin E prostate cancer study. Study.
- 01:47:35 - The different forms of vitamin E serve different roles in the body and affect cancer risk differently.
- 01:50:45 - Men who took the alpha-tocopherol form of vitamin E alone had markedly increased incidence of prostate cancer due to gamma tocopherol depletion; however, selenium supplementation prevented the increase in prostate cancer incidence. Study.
- 01:52:05 - Selenium prevents damage from reactive nitration products, which can cause cancer.
- 01:54:45 - Mixed tocopherol vitamin E supplements are available and are typically in lower doses than those used in studies.
- 02:01:18 - The RDA for vitamin D is 600 IUs a day, but 2000 to 4000 IUs are probably acceptable except in cases of severe deficiency.
- 02:03:18 - A recent study measured omega-3 fatty acid levels from both supplemental and dietary sources in blood and found that for every 1 percent increment in omega-3 fatty acid levels there was a 20 percent decreased risk in all-cause mortality. Study.
- 02:03:39 - People who took 1500 IUs of vitamin D a day had a 17 percent reduced cancer risk overall. [Study needed]
- 02:04:15 - Women who self-reported that they took multivitamin supplements on a daily basis had the longest telomeres. Study.
- 02:05:45 - Most micronutrients can be obtained in the diet, but some nutrients are harder to obtain.
- 02:06:30 - B vitamins compensate for age-related changes in mitochondrial membranes that can interfere with metabolism.
- 02:10:00 - High levels of water-soluble vitamins such as B and C pose little risk of toxicity because the excess is excreted; however, high levels of fat soluble vitamins such as vitamins A and D pose greater risks.
- 02:11:00 - The body converts approximately 5 percent of the plant form of omega-3, ALA, to EPA.
- 02:12:13 - Microalgae oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and may be a good alternative to flaxseed oil for people who avoid fish oil.
- 02:13:30 - The omega-3 fatty acid EPA is a potent anti-inflammatory, and the omega-3 fatty acid DHA is a component of your cell membranes and makes up about 40 percent of the brain.
- 02:15:28 - The omega-3 fatty acid EPA inhibits the arachidonic acid pathway to reduce inflammation.
- 02:16:05 - Consuming 2 grams of EPA per day has been shown to reduce C-reactive protein, which is a generalized systemic marker for inflammation and widely known for its use to assess risk of cardiovascular disease.
- 02:17:45 - Omega-3 fatty acids are prone to oxidation, but refrigeration helps prevent oxidation.
- 02:20:00 - Omega-3 fatty acids are signaling molecules that bind to DNA regions in mitochondrial genes and activate them.
- 02:27:29 - The Linus Pauling Institute is a good, objective source of supplemental micronutrient reviews. Site.
- 02:28:35 WellnessFX has a useful tool for getting a broad spectrum blood test checking for relevant markers for vitamins, minerals, inflammation, etc.Site.
- 02:31:00 - Brief discussion about the implausibility of homeopathy.
- 02:33:25 - Emerging research suggests that wisdom teeth contain dental pulp stem cells that have potential as a bankable source of cells that can differentiate into other cells including neurons. Study.
- 02:36:16 - Adding transcription factors to fibroblast cells from skin can reprogram the cells to become pluripotent stem cells, which have the potential to become any type of cell. Study.
- 02:37:35 - When the blood of young mice was injected into old mice, the older mice experienced tissue regeneration and improvements in memory and learning. Study.
- 02:38:54 - Environmental factors can trigger the activation of NF-kappa B, a proinflammatory cytokine, which induces the methylation of DNA in stem cells, influencing which cells divide, and ultimately influencing aging.
- 02:43:12 - Renal epithelial cells excreted in urine can be converted into pluripotent stem cells in the lab due to advances in stem cells science.
- 02:43:45 - A brief discussion about the current lack of funding in scientific research.
- 02:48:40 - The benefits of transplanting blood from young mice into old mice may be related to epigenetics, specifically the methylation patterns in stem cells.
- 02:50:06 - Inactivating insulin growth factor in worms doubles their lifespan. Study.
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