Joe Rogan Experience #502 - Dr. Rhonda Patrick
Posted on May 16th 2014 (almost 5 years)
Dr. Rhonda Patrick makes her second appearance on the Joe Rogan Experience.
A psychoactive drug, commonly known as Ecstasy or Molly. MDMA exerts both stimulant and hallucinogenic effects, altering mood and perception. It may induce feelings of increased energy, pleasure, emotional warmth, and distorted sensory and time perception.
A chemical byproduct of tryptophan obtained in the diet. 5-HTP is a precursor of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays important roles in mood, sleep, appetite, and many other physiological processes.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
An energy-carrying molecule present in all cells. ATP fuels cellular processes, including biosynthetic reactions, motility, and cell division by transferring one or more of its phosphate groups to another molecule (a process called phosphorylation).
Alpha linolenic acid (ALA)
An omega-3 fatty acid found mostly in plants. ALA can be converted into the omega-3 fatty acids EPA or DHA, but this conversion process is very inefficient in humans. When ALA is not converted to EPA or DHA, it remains inactive and is simply stored or used as energy, like other fats. Some evidence suggests an association between a diet rich in ALA and reduced risk of heart disease. Dietary sources of ALA include kale, spinach, soybeans, walnuts, seeds, and plant-based oils.
An area of the brain located close to the hippocampus, in the frontal portion of the temporal lobe. The amygdala governs our responses to fear, arousal, and emotional stimulation. Poor sleep increases activity within the amygdala.
A molecule that inhibits oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids in cells. Oxidative damage plays a role in the aging process, cancer, and neurodegeneration. Many vitamins and plant-based compounds are antioxidants.
A type of omega-6 polyunsaturated fat. Arachidonic acid is found in the phospholipid components of cell membranes, especially those in the brain, muscles, and liver. It plays key roles in the body’s inflammatory process. In particular, it promotes the formation of eicosanoids, a class of proinflammatory compounds, following injury or irritation.
Astragalus membranaceus (AM)
A medicinal herb commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. More than 200 distinct components of the dried roots of AM have been identified, the majority of which are polysacharrides, flavonoids, and saponins. In 2000, cycloastragenol, a small molecule extract of the herb, was found to exhibit telomerase activating properties. Extracts of the plant have also demonstrated immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative stress, and anti-aging effects, the latter of which are associated with the lengthening of telomeres. AM is purportedly a prominent component of an "anti-aging" supplement known as TA-65.[2, 3, 4]
 Salvador, Laura, et al. "A natural product telomerase activator lengthens telomeres in humans: a randomized, double blind, and placebo-controlled study." Rejuvenation research 19.6 (2016): 478-484.  Liu, Ping, Haiping Zhao, and Yumin Luo. "Anti-aging implications of Astragalus Membranaceus (Huangqi): a well-known Chinese tonic." Aging and disease 8.6 (2017): 868.( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5758356/)  Blackburn, Elizabeth H., Elissa S. Epel, and Jue Lin. "Human telomere biology: a contributory and interactive factor in aging, disease risks, and protection." Science 350.6265 (2015): 1193-1198.( http://science.sciencemag.org/content/350/6265/1193)  Shahzad, Muhammad, et al. "The antioxidant effects of Radix Astragali (Astragalus membranaceus and related species) in protecting tissues from injury and disease." Current drug targets 17.12 (2016): 1331-1340.
A developmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, behavioral problems, and poor communication. Autism typically manifests in early childhood and is slightly more common among boys than girls. In clinical trials, sulforaphane, a compound derived from broccoli and broccoli sprouts, reduces the characteristic behaviors associated with autism.
A highly selective semi-permeable barrier in the brain made up of endothelial cells connected by tight junctions. The blood-brain barrier separates the circulating blood from the brain's extracellular fluid in the central nervous system. Whereas water, lipid-soluble molecules, and some gases can pass through the blood-brain barrier via passive diffusion, molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function enter via selective transport. The barrier prevents the entry of lipophilic substances that may be neurotoxic via an active transport mechanism.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)
A type of protein that acts on neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. BDNF is a type of neurotrophin – or growth factor – that controls and promotes the growth of new neurons. It is active in the hippocampus, cortex, cerebellum, and basal forebrain – areas involved in learning, long term memory, and executive function. Exercise in combination with heat stress increases BDNF more effectively than exercise alone.  Goekint, Maaike, et al. "Influence of citalopram and environmental temperature on exercise-induced changes in BDNF." Neuroscience letters 494.2 (2011): 150-154.
Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs)
An amino acid having aliphatic side-chains with a branch (a central carbon atom bound to three or more carbon atoms). Among the proteinogenic amino acids, there are three BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine and valine.
C-reactive protein (CRP)
A ring-shaped protein found in blood plasma. CRP levels rise in response to inflammation and infection, or following a heart attack, surgery, or trauma. CRP is one of several proteins often referred to as acute phase reactants. It binds to the phosphocholine expressed on the surface of dead or dying cells and some bacteria, activating the complement system and promoting phagocytosis by macrophages, which clears necrotic and apoptotic cells and bacteria. The high-sensitivity CRP test (hsCRP) measures low levels of CRP in the blood to identify low levels of inflammation that are associated with risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
A broad category of small proteins (~5-20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling. Cytokines are short-lived proteins that are released by cells to regulate the function of other cells. Sources of cytokines include macrophages, B lymphocytes, mast cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and various stromal cells. Types of cytokines include chemokines, interferons, interleukins, lymphokines, and tumor necrosis factor.
The biological process in which a cell matures and specializes. Differentiation is essential for the development, growth, reproduction, and lifespan of multicellular organisms. Differentiated cells can only express genes that characterize a certain type of cell, such as a liver cell, for example.
A powerful hallucinogenic substance that is widespread in nature. DMT is a derivative of tryptamine. It is structurally similar to serotonin and functions in much the same way as psilocybin drugs. Well-known for its relatively short duration of action, intense effects, and rapid onset, it is one of the major psychoactive compounds used in religious practices in South America for centuries and, more recently, as a recreational drug in the US and Europe.
A major contributing factor to aging, cellular senescence, and the development of cancer. Byproducts of both mitochondrial energy production and immune activity are major sources of DNA damage. Additionally, environmental stressors can increase this base level of damage. DNA damage can be mitigated by cellular repair processes; however, the effectiveness of these processes may be influenced by the availability of dietary minerals, such as magnesium, and other dietary components, which are needed for proper function of repair enzymes.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
An omega-3 fatty acid with 22 carbon atoms that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, sperm, testicles and retina. Most of the DHA in fish and multicellular organisms with access to cold-water oceanic foods originates from photosynthetic and heterotrophic microalgae.
An extremely potent endogenous opioid peptide. Dynorphin acts on the kappa-opioid receptor and is associated with a transient feeling of dysphoria. It has many different physiological actions, depending upon its site of production, and is involved in addiction, temperature regulation, appetite, circadian rhythm, pain, stress, and depression. Dynorphin may also be involved in the body’s thermoregulatory response to hyperthermia.  Nyberg F, Hallberg M (2007). "Neuropeptides in hyperthermia". Prog. Brain Res. Progress in Brain Research. 162: 277–93. ISBN 978-0-444-51926-9. PMID 17645924. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(06)62014-1.
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
An omega-3 fatty acid found in the meat of fatty fish. EPA reduces inflammation in the body and helps counter oxidative stress in cells. It is crucial for modulating behavior and mood and has demonstrated beneficial effects in managing anxiety and depression. EPA may reduce risk of developing certain chronic diseases such as cancer or cardiovascular disease. Dietary sources of EPA include herring, salmon, eel, shrimp and sturgeon.
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)
A bioactive compound found in green tea. EGCG is a type of catechin. It is a potent scavenger of reactive oxygen species and has demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties in both clinical and in vitro studies.
Genetic control by factors other than modification of the genetic code found in the sequence of DNA. Epigenetic changes determine which genes are being expressed, which in turn may influence disease risk. Some epigenetic changes are heritable.
A vitamin that is readily dissolved in fats or oils. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed along with fats in the diet and can be stored in the body’s fatty tissue. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble. Dietary sources of fat-soluble vitamins include fatty fish (such as salmon), nuts, oils, and avocados, among others.
A type of spindle-shaped cell that produces connective tissue, such as collagen. During inflammation, fibroblasts produce cytokines, chemokines, and other inflammatory proteins to promote tissue rearrangement and subsequent repair. The failure to switch off fibroblasts may be a mechanism leading to chronic inflammation.
One of the most abundant non-essential amino acids in the human body. Glutamine plays key roles in several metabolic functions, including protein and glutathione synthesis, energy production, antioxidant status, and immune function. In addition, it regulates the expression of several genes. Although the body can typically produce all the glutamine it needs, during periods of metabolic stress it must rely on dietary sources of glutamine such as meats, fish, legumes, fruits, and vegetables.
A bidirectional signaling pathway between the gastrointestinal tract and the nervous system. often involving intestinal microbiota. Several studies have shown that the gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of anxiety, pain, cognition, and mood.
An iron-containing molecule that carries oxygen in the blood. Heme is acquired in the diet from meat, poultry, seafood, and fish and is readily absorbed in the human gut. Although iron is an essential nutrient, high intake of heme iron is associated with increased risk of several cancers, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Biliverdin, one of the byproducts of heme degradation, is responsible for the yellow color associated with bruises and urine, and the brown color of feces.
An alternative medicine practice based on the concept that the body can cure itself. Homeopathic remedies are made from substances derived from plants, animals, or minerals that have been diluted in water and shaken until there is little, if any, of the original substance left. Homeopaths believe that the original substance leaves a “molecular blueprint” in the water that triggers the body's healing mechanisms.
Biological responses to low-dose exposures to toxins or other stressors such as exercise, heat, cold, fasting, and xenohormetics. Hormetic responses are generally favorable and elicit a wide array of protective mechanisms. Examples of xenohormetic substances include plant polyphenols – molecules that plants produce in response to stress. Some evidence suggests plant polyphenols may have longevity-conferring effects when consumed in the diet.
A critical element of the body’s immune response. Inflammation occurs when the body is exposed to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is a protective response that involves immune cells, cell-signaling proteins, and pro-inflammatory factors. Acute inflammation occurs after minor injuries or infections and is characterized by local redness, swelling, or fever. Chronic inflammation occurs on the cellular level in response to toxins or other stressors and is often “invisible.” It plays a key role in the development of many chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)
One of the most potent natural activators of the AKT signaling pathway, stimulator of cell growth and proliferation, potent inhibitor of programmed cell death, primary mediator of the effects of growth hormone, and has been implicated in contributing to aging and enhancing the growth of cancer after it has been initiated. Similar in molecular structure to insulin, IGF-1 plays a role during childhood for growth and continues later in life to have anabolic, as well as neurotrophic effects. Protein intake increases IGF-1 levels in humans, independent of total caloric consumption.
Byproduct of a reaction between two compounds (glucosinolates and myrosinase) that are found in cruciferous vegetables. Isothiocyanates inhibit phase I biotransformation enzymes, a class of enzymes that transform procarcinogens into their active carcinogenic state. Isothiocyanates activate phase II detoxification enzymes, a class of enzymes that play a protective role against DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species and carcinogens. Examples of phase II enzymes include UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, sulfotransferases, N-acetyltransferases, glutathione S-transferases, and methyltransferases.
One of four related receptors that bind opioid-like compounds in the brain. Opioid receptors are responsible for mediating the effects of these compounds, which including altering pain, consciousness, motor control, mood, stress, and addiction. Agonism of this receptor produces a transient feeling of dysphoria but also causes an upregulation and sensitization of mu opioid receptors, which interact with beta-endorphin.
A biochemical process involving the addition or subtraction of a methyl group (CH3) to another chemical group. In epigenetics, a methyl group is added to an amino acid in a histone tail on DNA, altering the activity of the DNA segment without changing its sequence.
Single-celled microorganisms that live in marine or freshwater environments. Microalgae use the process of photosynthesis to convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to oxygen and microalgal biomass, the latter of which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids.
Vitamins and minerals that are required by organisms throughout life in small quantities to orchestrate a range of physiological functions. The term micronutrients encompasses vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids.
Tiny organelles inside cells that produce energy in the presence of oxygen. Mitochondria are referred to as the "powerhouses of the cell" because of their role in the production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Mitochondria are continuously undergoing a process of self-renewal known as mitophagy in order to repair damage that occurs during their energy-generating activities.
The process of forming new neurons. Neurogenesis is essential during embryonic development, but also continues in certain brain regions throughout human lifespan.
A rapid-acting transcription factor that responds to harmful cellular stimuli, such as reactive oxygen species, IL-1B, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide or "LPS"), ionizing radiation, and oxidized LDL. Incorrect regulation of NF-kB has been linked to cancer, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, septic shock, viral infection, and improper immune development. Several viruses, including the AIDS virus HIV, have binding sites for NF-kB. In the case of HIV, the presence of NF-kB is believed to be involved in switching the virus from a latent to an active state.
One of four nitrogen-containing molecules that comprise DNA. A nucleotide consists of one of four chemicals, called a “base,” plus one molecule of sugar and one molecule of phosphoric acid. Nucleotides are typically identified by the first letter of their base names: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). They form specific pairs (A with T, and G with C), and their bonds provide the helical structure of the DNA strand.
Omega-3 fatty acid
A type of polyunsaturated fat that is essential for human health. Omega-3 fatty acids influence cell membrane integrity and affect the function of membrane-bound cellular receptors. They participate in pathways involved in the biosynthesis of hormones that regulate blood clotting, contraction and relaxation of artery walls, and inflammation. They have been shown to help prevent heart disease and stroke, may help control lupus, eczema, and rheumatoid arthritis, and may play protective roles in cancer and other conditions. Omega-3 fatty acids include alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). ALA is found mainly in plant oils such as flaxseed, soybean, and canola oils. DHA and EPA are found in fish and other seafood. The human body can convert some ALA into EPA and then to DHA, but the efficiency of the process varies between individuals.
A naturally-occurring substance found in many foods. Oxalate binds to calcium in the gut and is eliminated in the feces. Any unbound oxalate passes through the kidneys and is excreted in the urine. High levels of oxalate in the kidneys can contribute to the risk of developing kidney stones. Dietary sources of oxalate include dark green leafy vegetables, beans, potatoes, and bran, among others.
A small endocrine gland found in the brain of mammals. The pineal gland secretes melatonin, a hormone that regulates the sleep-wake cycle as well as other metabolic processes.
Capable of developing into any type of cell or tissue except those that form a placenta or embryo.
A class of chemical compounds produced in plants in response to stressors. Polyphenols contribute to the bitterness, astringency, color, flavor, and fragrance of many fruits and vegetables. They often serve as deterrents to insect or herbivore consumption. When consumed in the human diet, polyphenols exert many health benefits and may offer protection against development of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis, and neurodegenerative diseases. Dietary sources of polyphenols include grapes, apples, pears, cherries, and berries, which provide as much as 200 to 300 mg polyphenols per 100 grams fresh weight.
A class of bacteria involved in the decomposition of living matter. Putrefying bacteria utilize essential amino acids (e.g., histidine, tryptophan, etc.) present in the gut to perform putrefaction, disrupting gut homeostasis. Some of the byproducts of putrefaction, such as ammonia, putrescine, cresol, indole, and phenol have been implicated in the pathogenesis of colon cancer.
A small molecule that functions as both a neurotransmitter and a hormone. Serotonin is produced in the brain and gut and facilitates the bidirectional communication between the two. It regulates many physiological functions, including sleep, appetite, mood, thermoregulation, and others. Many antidepressants are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which work by preventing the reabsorption of serotonin, thereby increasing extracellular levels of the hormone.
A constellation of symptoms induced by the use of serotonergic drugs. Serotonin syndrome is characterized by the overactivation of serotonin receptors and is potentially life-threatening. Symptoms include changes in mental status, increased reflexes, muscle spasms, sweating, dilated pupils, and diarrhea.
SSRI (Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor)
A class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Some of the drugs that fall under this classification include: Citalopram (Celexa), Escitalopram (Lexapro), Fluoxetine (Prozac), Paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva), Sertraline (Zoloft).
Distinctive structures comprised of short, repetitive sequences of DNA located on the ends of chromosomes. Telomeres form a protective “cap” – a sort of disposable buffer that gradually shortens with age – that prevents chromosomes from losing genes or sticking to other chromosomes during cell division. When the telomeres on a cell’s chromosomes get too short, the chromosome reaches a “critical length,” and the cell stops dividing (senescence) or dies (apoptosis). Telomeres are replenished by the enzyme telomerase, a reverse transcriptase.
A protein that binds to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA. A defining feature of transcription factors is that they contain one or more DNA-binding domains, which attach to specific sequences of DNA adjacent to the genes that they regulate.
An essential amino acid. Tryptophan plays key roles in the biosynthesis of proteins and is a precursor to several molecules with physiological significance, including melatonin, niacin, and the neurotransmitter serotonin. Inflammation causes tryptophan to be reallocated from serotonin synthesis to that of kynurenine, which then converts to the neurotoxin quinolinic acid, leading to depression. Dietary sources of tryptophan include most protein-based foods, such as meat, beans, or nuts.
An enzyme required for the synthesis of serotonin. Tryptophan hydroxylase catalyzes the formation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) from the dietary precursor tryptophan.
A fat-soluble vitamin. Vitamin A is a collective term that includes retinol, retinal, and retinyl esters. Vitamin A plays key roles in immune function, reproduction, and cellular communication. It is best known for its role in supporting eye health and the processes involved in vision. Vitamin A also supports cell growth and differentiation and participates in the normal formation and maintenance of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs. Dietary sources of vitamin A include liver, fish oils, milk, eggs, leafy green vegetables, orange and yellow vegetables, tomato products, fruits, and some vegetable oils.
A fat-soluble vitamin stored in the liver and fatty tissues. Vitamin D plays key roles in several physiological processes, such as the regulation of blood pressure, calcium homeostasis, immune function, and the regulation of cell growth. In the skin, vitamin D decreases proliferation and enhances differentiation. Vitamin D synthesis begins when 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is found primarily in the skin’s epidermal layer, reacts to ultraviolet light and converts to vitamin D. Subsequent processes convert D to calcitriol, the active form of the vitamin. Vitamin D can be obtained from dietary sources, too, such as salmon, mushrooms, and many fortified foods.
Vitamin D response element
A specific sequence of DNA located in the promoter region of genes regulated by vitamin D.
A fat-soluble vitamin. Vitamin E is the collective name for a group of eight fat-soluble compounds (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, & delta-tocopherol and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, & delta-tocotrienol) with distinctive antioxidant activities. Of these eight, only alpha- (α-) tocopherol meets human requirements. Vitamin E serves as an antioxidant that breaks the chain reaction formation of reactive free radicals. In doing so it becomes oxidized and loses its antioxidant capacity. Vitamin E also protects LDL from oxidation and maintains the integrity of cell membranes throughout the body. Dietary sources of vitamin E include nuts, seeds, eggs, and fatty fish, such as salmon.
A vitamin that is readily dissolved in water. Water-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body. Vitamin C and members of the vitamin B family are water-soluble. Dietary sources of water-soluble vitamins include fruits, vegetables, meats, and legumes, among others.
An endogenous opioid neuropeptide used as an analgesic in the body to numb or dull pains that has also been implicated in thermoregulatory mechanisms, increasing significantly in response to heat stress. Endorphin is a contraction of "endogenous" and "morphine." On a molar basis, the analgesic potency of its effects are up to 33-times more potent than morphine. Both morphine and β-Endorphin act on the μ-opioid receptor. Interestingly, the hormonal milieu involved in the bodily response to hyperthermic stress is impaired to varying degrees in a variety of substance abuse conditions, including alcoholism, heroin, and cocaine addiction.
 Ježová, Daniela, et al. "Rise in plasma β-endorphin and ACTH in response to hyperthermia in sauna." Hormone and Metabolic Research 17.12 (1985): 693-694.  Loh, Horace H., et al. "Beta-endorphin is a potent analgesic agent." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 73.8 (1976): 2895-2898.  Vescovi, P. P., et al. "Hyperthermia in sauna is unable to increase the plasma levels of ACTH/cortisol, ß-endorphin and prolactin in cocaine addicts." Journal of endocrinological investigation 15.9 (1992): 671-675.
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