Joe Rogan Experience #1054 - Dr. Rhonda Patrick
Posted on December 21st 2017 (about 2 years)
Dr. Rhonda Patrick makes her seventh appearance on the Joe Rogan Experience.
A few of the topics and studies mentioned in this episode include...
- 00:04:20 - Fish roe and krill oil have high phospholipid DHA content. Study.
- 00:04:35 - DHA in phospholipid form passes into the brain more readily than DHA in triglyceride form. Study 1; Study 2.
- 00:06:00 - The phospholipid form of DHA may be beneficial for people with APOE-related Alzheimer’s disease. Study.
- 00:07:28 - Rhonda eats salmon roe with avocado. Recipe.
- 00:12:02 - The DNA of sperm in obese men differs epigenetically from that of leaner men. Study. News article.
- 00:18:00 - Breast milk contains more than 200 human milk oligosaccharides that feed the early infant's microbiome. Study.
- 00:19:21 - Children who are not breastfed have three times higher risk of allergies by the age of two. Study.
- 00:20:11 - Breast milk stem cells may be incorporated into babies to help establish organs like the liver, kidneys, pancreas, and brain. Study.
- 00:29:00 - Changes in estrogen levels and serotonin production after pregnancy associated with postpartum depression. Study.
- 00:36:30 - APOE4 gene increases risk of amyloid deposition in the brain after a traumatic brain injury. Study 1; Study 2.
- 00:44:34 - VO2Max - aerobic capacity - decreases 10% every decade after age 25. Study.
- 00:45:12 - VO2Max increases by 12% after 8 weeks of high-intensity interval training. Study.
- 00:54:30 - Maternal antibodies from mothers of children with autism alter brain growth and social behavior development in the rhesus monkey. Study.
- 00:55:02 - Antibodies found in the plasma of some mothers of children with autism suggest a link between maternal antibody transfer and risk of autism. Study.
- 01:05:31 - A person’s blood glucose response to different foods varies dramatically among different people due to genetic differences. Study.
- 01:17:00 - Rhonda interviewed Dr. Ronald Krauss, who pioneered the test to measure small, dense LDL particles. Study.
- 01:22:00 - A cyclic ketogenic diet improves memory and extends life in mice. Study.
- 01:28:13 - Twenty ounces of a sugar-sweetened beverage every day for 3 weeks increases C-reactive protein and small dense, LDL cholesterol in healthy men. Study.
- 01:28:50 - Healthy adults who drink 12 ounces of sugar-sweetened soda beverages per day may have accelerated aging as evidenced by shorter telomeres. Study.
- 01:28:50 - Consuming 75 grams of sugar a day decreases testosterone 25% in men. Study.
- 01:37:05 - NAD+ levels decrease with age in humans. Study.
- 01:38:30 - Nicotinamide riboside supplementation increases NAD+ levels by up to 90% after four weeks. Study.
- 01:43:00 - High animal protein intake was only positively associated with cardiovascular mortality among individuals with at least one unhealthy lifestyle risk factor, such as obesity or sedentary lifestyle. Study.
- 01:45:05 - People with the highest refined sugar intake had a 4-fold increase risk in heart attacks compared to those with lowest intake. Study.
- 02:00:15 - Supplementation with 20 mg of PQQ - pyrroloquinoline quinone - improves cognitive function, decreases inflammatory biomarkers, and increases markers of mitochondrial function. Study 1; Study 2.
- 02:04:59 - National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) ensures quality and safety of dietary supplements.
- 02:13:57 - When gut bacteria from young fish were transplanted into old fish, it extended their lifespan by 37%. Study.
- 02:27:15 - Short chain fatty acids from but bacteria can dramatically amplify cancer immunotherapy. Study.
- 02:29:10 - Paternal age plays a role in autism risk. Study.
- 02:51:50 - People who engaged in strength training exercises had a 23% lower all-cause mortality and a 30% lower cancer-related mortality. Study.
- 03:00:09 - VO2 max increases during pregnancy. Study.
Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD)
A method of lowering brain tryptophan and, thus, serotonin (5-HT). Administration of a bolus, usually a drink, containing large neutral amino acids (LNAA), but lacking tryptophan, limits the transport of endogenous tryptophan across the blood-brain barrier through competition with other LNAAs undergoing active transport. This is able to subsequently decrease serotonergic neurotransmission and is a useful way for scientists to study the effects of this type of neurotransmission.
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)
A lipoprotein produced in the liver and the brain. In the brain, ApoE transports fatty acids and cholesterol to neurons. In the bloodstream, it binds and transports cholesterol, bringing it to tissues and recycling it back to the liver. Approximately 25% of people carry a genetic variant of this lipoprotein called ApoE4, which is associated with higher circulating levels of LDL cholesterol and a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.
An intracellular degradation system involved in the disassembly and recycling of unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components. Autophagy participates in cell death, a process known as autophagic dell death. Prolonged fasting is a robust initiator of autophagy and may help protect against cancer and even aging by reducing the burden of abnormal cells.
The relationship between autophagy and cancer is complex, however. Autophagy may prevent the survival of pre-malignant cells, but can also be hijacked as a malignant adaptation by cancer, providing a useful means to scavenge resources needed for further growth.VIEW AUTOPHAGY TOPIC
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)
A type of protein that acts on neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. BDNF is a type of neurotrophin – or growth factor – that controls and promotes the growth of new neurons. It is active in the hippocampus, cortex, cerebellum, and basal forebrain – areas involved in learning, long term memory, and executive function. Exercise in combination with heat stress increases BDNF more effectively than exercise alone.  Goekint, Maaike, et al. "Influence of citalopram and environmental temperature on exercise-induced changes in BDNF." Neuroscience letters 494.2 (2011): 150-154.
The body’s 24-hour cycles of biological, hormonal, and behavioral patterns. Circadian rhythms modulate a wide array of physiological processes, including the body’s production of hormones that regulate sleep, hunger, metabolism, and others, ultimately influencing body weight, performance, and susceptibility to disease. As much as 20 percent of gene expression in the human body is under circadian control including genes in the brain, liver, and muscle. As such, circadian rhythmicity may have profound implications for human healthspan.
C-reactive protein (CRP)
A ring-shaped protein found in blood plasma. CRP levels rise in response to inflammation and infection, or following a heart attack, surgery, or trauma. CRP is one of several proteins often referred to as acute phase reactants. It binds to the phosphocholine expressed on the surface of dead or dying cells and some bacteria, activating the complement system and promoting phagocytosis by macrophages, which clears necrotic and apoptotic cells and bacteria. The high-sensitivity CRP test (hsCRP) measures low levels of CRP in the blood to identify low levels of inflammation that are associated with risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
A value (between 0 and 100) assigned to a defined amount of a carbohydrate-containing food based on how much the food increases a person’s blood glucose level within two hours of eating, compared to eating an equivalent amount of pure glucose. Glucose has a glycemic index value of 100. Whereas eating high glycemic index foods induces a sharp increase in blood glucose levels that declines rapidly, eating low glycemic index foods generally results in a lower blood glucose concentration that declines gradually.
A bidirectional signaling pathway between the gastrointestinal tract and the nervous system, often involving intestinal microbiota. Several studies have shown that the gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of anxiety, pain, cognition, and mood.
Hemoglobin A1C (Glycated Hemoglobin)
A blood test that measures the amount of glycated hemoglobin in a person’s red blood cells. The hemoglobin A1c test is often used to assess long-term blood glucose control in people with diabetes. Glycation is a chemical process in which a sugar molecule bonds to a lipid or protein molecule, such as hemoglobin. As the average amount of plasma glucose increases, the fraction of glycated hemoglobin increases in a predictable way. In diabetes mellitus, higher amounts of glycated hemoglobin, indicating poorer control of blood glucose levels, have been associated with cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. Also known as HbA1c.
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs)
a family of unique oligosaccharides found in human breast milk that are otherwise indigestible by the infant and thought to have evolved to serve as selective prebiotics for certain commensal bacteria which co-evolved with the unique ability to more efficiently utilize these carbohydrates as a substrate.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)
One of the most potent natural activators of the AKT signaling pathway, stimulator of cell growth and proliferation, potent inhibitor of programmed cell death, primary mediator of the effects of growth hormone, and has been implicated in contributing to aging and enhancing the growth of cancer after it has been initiated. Similar in molecular structure to insulin, IGF-1 plays a role during childhood for growth and continues later in life to have anabolic, as well as neurotrophic effects. Protein intake increases IGF-1 levels in humans, independent of total caloric consumption.
Molecules (often simply called “ketones”) produced by the liver during the breakdown of fatty acids. Ketone production occurs during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, or prolonged intense exercise. There are three types of ketone bodies: acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone. Ketone bodies are readily used as energy by a diverse array of cell types, including neurons.
The collection of genomes of the microorganisms in a given niche. The human microbiome plays key roles in development, immunity, and nutrition. Dysfunction of the microbiome is associated with the pathology of several conditions, including obesity, depression, and autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, and fibromyalgia.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)
A coenzyme that is required for the production of energy in cells. NAD+ is synthesized from three major precursors: tryptophan, nicotinic acid (vitamin B3), and nicotinamide. It regulates the activity of several key enzymes including those involved in metabolism and repairing DNA damage. NAD+ levels rise during a fasted state. A group of enzymes called sirtuins, which are a type of histone deacetylase, use NAD+ to remove acetyl groups from proteins and are important mediators for the effects of fasting, caloric restriction, and the effects of the plant compound resveratrol, a so-called caloric restriction mimetic.
A small molecule that functions as both a neurotransmitter and a hormone. Serotonin is produced in the brain and gut and facilitates the bidirectional communication between the two. It regulates many physiological functions, including sleep, appetite, mood, thermoregulation, and others. Many antidepressants are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which work by preventing the reabsorption of serotonin, thereby increasing extracellular levels of the hormone.
Very low-density LDL (VLDL)
A type of lipoprotein. VLDL enables fats and cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream. It is assembled in the liver from triglycerides, cholesterol, and apolipoproteins, and converted in the bloodstream to low-density lipoprotein (LDL). VLDL transports endogenous products (those made by the body), whereas chylomicrons transport exogenous products (those that come from the diet).
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